## On Climate Sensitivity and why it is probably small

### What is climate sensitivity?

The equilibrium climate sensitivity refers to the equilibrium change in average global surface air temperature following a unit change in the radiative forcing. This sensitivity (often denoted as λ) therefore has units of °C/(W/m2).

Often, instead &\lambda;, the sensitivity is expressed through the temperature change &Delta Tx2, in response to a doubled atmospheric CO2 content, which is equivalent to a radiative forcing of 3.8 W/m2. Thus, &Delta Tx2 = 3.8 W/m2 λ

## Standing on ice - When is it possible?

Ever wondered whether it was sufficiently cold for sufficiently long to allow you to stand on ice, without falling in? I once did. Here is an estimate for the duration required to reach a given thickness. Actually, it is a lower limit, since we assume a few simplifying assumptions.

## Exhale Condensation Calculator

If the temperature is low enough or the humidity high, you can observe condensation (i.e., "fog") forming in your exhaled breath. This calculator estimates whether your exhaled breath will condense, and if so, the range of mixing ratios for which the "fog" will form and the maximum condensed water content (the higher it is, the "thicker" the condensation).

If you're interested, there is a much more detailed explanations of the condensation process.

Exhaled Condensation Calculator
Using the above equations, we can calculate whether the exhaled air will condense. Enter the conditions of the outside air (and modify the exhaled air parameters if you wish), to see whether your breath will condense, or not.

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Sensible Climate Physics and more Other